Chapter 5: Betel Leaves (Piper betle L.) Powder: Production, Nutritional Quality, Physico-Chemical and Functional Properties

Ho, Dr. Lee Hoon (2018) Chapter 5: Betel Leaves (Piper betle L.) Powder: Production, Nutritional Quality, Physico-Chemical and Functional Properties. In: Flour: Production, Varieties and Nutrition. Nova Science Publishers, USA, pp. 69-96. ISBN 978-1-53613-761-3

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Betel (Piper betle L.) vines are cultivated for its nutrition and medicinal properties. Good as it is, betel leaves are highly perishable. Hence, it posses challenge in commercialisation of betel leaves. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of different drying conditions, i.e., hot-air oven drying at 40 (HAD-40), 50 (HAD50), and 60°C (HAD-60) and freeze drying (FD), on the nutritional values, physical, chemical, and functional properties of betel leaves powder. Hot-air oven drying at 60°C was the most effective method to preserve the nutrients of dried betel leaves with proximate compositions of 8.80% moisture, 22.81% crude protein, 5.40% crude fat, 12.02% crude fibre, 12.09% ash, 50.91% total carbohydrate, and 343.44 kcal/100 g energy. Results of physical analyses showed that HAD-40 had higher yield and lower water activity (aw) compared to other powders, while HAD-60 demonstrated highest bulk density value. FD showed the highest lightness, greenness, and yellowness values. For chemical properties, HAD-40 had the highest pH and total titratable acidity values, while the total soluble solid of all samples were insignificantly (P > 0.05) different. The functional properties results demonstrated that HAD-40 had the highest water holding capacity and the lowest oil holding capacity. HAD-40 betel leaves powder appeared to be the best drying method as it shows the highest value for total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential assay. However, in 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging ability, FD technique recorded the highest value. Overall, the suitable drying method in the production of betel leaves powder can be identified for their further applications as food ingredients, depending on characteristics and quality of the end product.

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Bio-resources & Food Industry
Depositing User: Fatin Amirah Ramlan
Date Deposited: 10 Jan 2022 04:15
Last Modified: 10 Jan 2022 04:15

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